Read the following passages and respond to the questions that follow each passage. Your responses should be based on the passages.
Questions number 1 to 5 :
Between the thirteenth and the sixteenth century, European feudal lords accumulated large amounts of money by exploiting the serfs. The accumulated capital was put to newer uses. They gave financial support to explorers who discovered new lands and routes. Columbus crossed the Atlantic Ocean and discovered the New World. Vasco da Gama circumnavigated the African continent and discovered a safe trade route to India and the East. One of the ships in Magellan's fleet returned to Europe and proved that it was possible to circumnavigate the Earth. Another use of the accumulated capital was the patronization of great artists like Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo and Raphael. These artists revolutionized the arts of painting and sculpture and represented the human body in great detail. Artists like da Vinci also studied anatomy as it would help them represent the human body accurately in their art.
Anatomy was not the only science that evolved in this period. Alchemists who wanted to find the Philosophers' Stone and the Elixir of Life ended up discovering various new elements like Phosphorus and Chemistry evolved as a Science. Copernicus proposed that Sun and not Earth, was the centre of our solar system. Scientists like Kepler and Galileo used the experimental method to prove him right. They believed that the book of Nature was written in the language of Mathematics. Apart from the various discoveries, Scientific Method itself evolved in this period. Scientists proposed an idea, conducted experiments to prove it, recorded the proceedings of the experiment and kept the records open for scrutiny by others working in the field. They believed that man had an almost unlimited potential of changing the world for the better. Though the Church was immensely rich and powerful, people began to discard a life of blind belief in destiny and a Spirit of Inquiry evolved. The new ideology of Humanism emphasized the capacities and efforts of individual humans. European scholars revived the classical Greek and Roman texts and popularised them with the new technique of printing developed by Gutenberg. The word renaissance means revival. All these interrelated phenomena are collectively called the Renaissance.