राज्यसेवा पूर्व परीक्षा २०१६ - Paper 2

Passage (Questions number 1 to 5):
         It is believed that the beginnings of modernity can be traced to the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. The period from the French Revolution of 1789 till the First World War (1914 - 1918) is believed to be of high modernity. With the First World War, there began the questioning of the settled assumptions about everything. This is believed to be the beginning of Post-modernity and the gradual waning of modernity; though both of them continue to coexist uneasily in the world today. Charles Baudelaire is credited for having coined the term 'modernity' in 1864 in his essay The Painter of Modern Life' to denote a relationship with the contemporary time characterised by a rupture with the tradition. Though the term modernity was coined during the high tide of its existence in the nineteenth century, its various features can be observed from the fifteenth century onwards. Anthony Giddens has defined modernity as a 'shorthand term for modern society or Industrial Civilisation'. He believes that it is associated with (1) the idea of the world as open to transformation by human intervention; (2) a complex of economic institutions, especially industrial production and a market economy; (3) political institutions including the nation-state and mass democracy. Modernity in Europe involved the spread of capitalism, democracy and industrial revolution accompanied by a critique of religion. This very process manifested itself with varying intensity in the colonies. In the history of Afro-Asian countries where certain beginnings of modernity were already visible, imperialism brought about a rupture and directed the course of their history on a different trajectory of exploitation and the colonial reality. When cultures confronted each other as colonisers and the colonised, introspection and efforts towards change were inevitable. The political and cultural hegemony of the colonial power in India brought the Indians face to face with various ideas included in the cluster of modernity — liberty, equality, fraternity, rationality, rule of law, spirit of enquiry and individualism. This is not to say that these were completely alien to the Indians. Ideas such as reason and liberty have been a part of the Indian philosophical and literary discourse at least from the times of Buddha, i.e., the 6th century B.C. 

सविस्तर वाचा...

1. 

Which of the following statements is not true?

2. 

What according to Anthony Giddens is not included in the concept of modernity ?

3. 

Read the statements given below carefully and choose the correct option.

a. Certain ideas in the literature during the time of Gautam Buddha were
congruent with modernity. 

b. Afro-Asian countries were introduced to modernity because of colonialism. 

4. 

Which of the following two statements is/are correct? 

a. Religious rituals are not said to be modern. 

b. It is not that because of the foreign power India did not modernise.

5. 

Which of the following statements is true ?

Passage (Questions number 6 to 10) :
                World leaders have recently announced 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) with 169 associated targets. The goals and targets are integrated and indivisible. Global leaders have pledged common action and endeavour for such a broad and universal policy agenda. They have decided to implement the Agenda for the full benefit of all. The world has reaffirmed the importance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, as well as other international laws. The emphasis is given on the responsibilities of all states, in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations, to respect, protect and promote human rights and ensuring fundamental freedom for all, without distinction of any kind as to race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth, disability, etc.
                 The new goals and targets have come into effect on January 1, 2016 and will guide the decisions to be taken over the next fifteen years. It is necessary to respect the national policy space for inclusive and sustainable economic growth, in particular for developing countries from Africa and Asia. People who are vulnerable must be empowered. Those whose needs are reflected in the development agenda include all children, youth, persons with disabilities, people living with HIV/AIDS, older persons, indigenous peoples, refugees and internally displaced persons and migrants. The commitment is shown towards ending poverty in all its forms and dimensions by 2030. SDGs ensure the basic standard of living, end of hunger and achieving food security as a matter of high priority and to end all forms of malnutrition.
                 To promote physical and mental health and well-being, and to extend life expectancy for all, we must achieve universal health coverage and availability of quality healthcare. It is essential to reduce new-born, child and maternal mortality by 2030. SDGs have promised universal access to sexual and reproductive healthcare services, including for family planning, information and education. The focus will be to accelerate the pace of progress made in fighting malaria, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, hepatitis, Ebola and other communicable diseases and epidemics.
               SDGs aim at building strong economic foundations for all countries. Inclusive and sustainable economic growth is essential for prosperity. It will be easy if wealth is distributed equally and income inequality is addressed. Nations must work to build dynamic, sustainable, innovative and people-centred economies, promoting youth employment and women's economic empowerment. All countries stand to benefit from having a healthy and well-educated workforce. The vast agenda of SDGs shows a certain direction of human progress in the next decade and a half. All the countries in the world must work relentlessly to ensure that most of the goals are attained and the quality of human life is improved all over the globe.

सविस्तर वाचा...

6. 

Which of the following is/are not true? 

a. Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are applicable only to the developing countries. 

b. Goals under SDG are interrelated.

7. 

Consider the following statements and select the proper option :

a. Inclusive growth is a pre-condition of economic prosperity.

b. Economic prosperity is a pre-condition of inclusive growth.

8. 

a. Quality healthcare improves life expectancy.

b. Quality healthcare reduces child mortality.

c. SDGs promise healthcare services.

d. SDGs aim at reduced poverty.

Which of the above statements are true ?

9. 

Consider the following statements and select the proper option:

a. Human rights and international laws are important for sustainable development.

b. It is the responsibility of all the states to promote human rights and freedom.

10. 

Which of the following pairs is not a part of the above passage ?

Passage (Questions number 11 to 15) :
        Academics have long argued about what led to the unusually large brain of humans with its capacity for language, abstract thought and consciousness. Scientists have matched exceptionally wet periods and very dry periods in the East African Rift Valley to sudden spurts in the evolution of the hominid ancestors of Homo sapiens, which resulted in the evolution of the modern human brain.
          The latest theory suggests it was triggered by the need to adapt to dramatic changes in the local environment of early man. "It seems modern humans were born from climate change, as they had to deal with rapid switching from famine to feast - and back again - which drove the appearance of new species with bigger brains and also pushed them out of East Africa into Eurasia and South Africa," said Professor Mark Maslin of University College, London.
          The Rift Valley is an extensive geological fault marked by mountains, lakes and fertile valleys. Many of the most important fossil remains of early humans have been unearthed in the region, leading to suggestions that it was the most important place for the early origins of man.
           The study looked at climate change over the past 5 million years. The scientists found that there were relatively short periods lasting about 2,00,000 years when East Africa became very sensitive to the cyclical changes in the Earth's orbit around the Sun - known as Milankovitch cycles - which lead to global-scale changes to the climate, such as ice ages.
          "Due to these changes in orbit, the climate of East Africa seems to go through extreme oscillations from having huge deep freshwater lakes surrounded by rich, lush vegetation to extremely arid conditions, like today, of sand dunes in the Rift Valley," Professor Maslin said. "These changes resulted in the evolution of a new species with bigger brains, and also forced early humans to disperse out of East Africa," he said.
           The study found that there were three time periods in particular when this kind of climate change corresponded to important stages in human evolution. The first occurred about 2.6 million years ago when the Rift Valley dwellers were pushed into southern Africa and a new species called Homo habilis emerged. The second happened about 1.9 million years ago when an important species called Homo erectus emerged from Africa to colonise much of Asia, while the third occurred about 1 million years ago when Homo heidelbergensis emerged.
           Professor Maslin said that the technique is not accurate enough to deal with the past 1,50,000 years, when Homo sapiens first evolved, but that it nevertheless could explain the earlier evolutionary transition leading to Homo erectus, which is the first large-brained hominid with truly human-like skeleton showing a distinctive adolescent growth-spurt.

सविस्तर वाचा...

11. 

Select the most logical comment with respect to the passage given. 

12. 

Select the appropriate set of hominid species arranged from earliest to modern that are mentioned in the above passage

13. 

Select the major evidence that is provided by scientists for considering climate change as a reason for triggering extraordinary growth of brain.

14. 

Select the option that logically describes interrelationship between a and b.

a. Milankovitch cycles made the Rift Valley climate go through extreme Oscillations of wet and arid conditions over a period of 2,00,000 years.

b. Hominid ancestors with large brain only could survive in the drastic climatic changes and therefore they emerged as new species.

15. 

According to Professor Maslin, modern humans were born from climate change, as they had to deal with rapid switching from famine to feast- and back again - which drove the appearance of new species with bigger brains. Select the observation(s) that support(s) Professor Maslin's statement.

a. All members of the existing human races have a large sized brain compared to their body size.

b. Many animal species like dinosaurs that have become extinct, had comparatively smaller brains.

Passage (Questions number 16 to 20) :
            It is a well-known fact that a few dozen people in history own a Nobel prize in economics. For achieving their world changing results they all put in long work. Angus Deaton, this year's Nobel winner recounts a different story with respect to his achievement as he gave importance to his luck. According to him, his father did not die in Second World War as luckily he contracted TB. In the easy labour market after war, Deaton's father, a coal miner in Scotland, got a job at a civil engineering firm. He encouraged young Deaton to read books by going against the advice of the rest of his family. Reading books made him very conscious about the role that luck played in the lives of people. He says, “If you re-ran the world, it would be shuffled in a very different way." He has blended this outlook into his Nobel winning lifetime work. He writes, "Those of us who were lucky enough to be born in the right countries have a moral obligation to reduce poverty and ill-health in the world."
              Deaton's career is focused on understanding how people consume goods and services - a crucial step to achieving social goals like improved health and well-being and poverty and inequality reduction. He aims to understand why each person makes choices he or she does. With this focus Deaton has been particularly adept at disentangling the cause of poverty and inequality from the consequences. For example, in India, he showed that malnutrition was caused by a low income - rather than being a cause of low income, as some believed. He showed that increasing people's income did lead to higher calorie intake among the poor. To learn this, Deaton simply looked at the behaviours of individuals who are poor. He did not use aggregate data that includes people with higher income and flatten out effect.
            The Nobel Prize Committee wrote: “In the 1980s, research development was mostly theoretical, where it was empirical, it was based on aggregate data from national accounts. This has now changed. Development economics is a flourishing empirical research field based upon the advanced analysis of data from individual households. Deaton's research has been an important driving force in this transformation."
 

सविस्तर वाचा...

16. 

Choose the most practical true conclusion on the basis of the given statements : For achieving their world changing results, all Nobel winners put in long work. Angus Deaton, this year's Nobel winner recounts a different story with respect to his achievement as he gave importance to his luck.

17. 

Choose the most appropriate reason from the given options for which Deaton considers himself lucky. (1) Deaton's father did not die in th

18. 

Select the action(s) of Angus Deaton that directly changed the world view of development economics :

a. Reading books and considering him lucky.

b. Analysing household data of poor people using advanced technique.

c. Observing behaviour of poor individuals related to their choices.

d. Working for reduction of inequality and ill-health.

19. 

Choose the roles of Deaton's skill of disentangling causes from consequences in the context of social problems. 

a. Helped him to become conscious of the role of luck in people's lives.

b. He was able to understand reasons of the choices that poor people make.

c. He was able to establish the fact that low income results in malnutrition.

d. He was able to study interventions introduced for reducing malnutrition.

20. 

Choose the work that Deaton did to fulfil his moral responsibility of reducing poverty and ill-health in the world.

a. Focused on studying poor person's behaviour related to their choices.
b.Gave importance to studying how people's luck affected their choices in their
life.
c. establishing base for Observed choices of individual households for development economics.
d. Replaced practice of analysing aggregate data with analysing individual data for studying problems.

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