Read the following passage and answer the questions from 1 to 5:
Immanuel Kant wrote a treatise called "What is Enlightenment ?” in 1784. He explained that 'Enlightenment is man's release from his self-incurred tutelage. Tutelage is man's inability to make use of his understanding without direction from another. Self-incurred is this tutelage when its cause lies not in the lack of reason but in the lack of courage to use it without direction from another. Laziness and cowardice are the reasons why so great a portion of mankind remains under lifelong tutelage, and why it is so easy for others to set themselves up as their guardians. It is so easy not to be of age. That the step to competence is held to be very dangerous by the far greater portion of mankind is seen to by those guardians who have so kindly assumed superintendence over them. After the guardians have transformed their domestic cattle into dumb followers, and have made sure that these placid creatures will not dare take a single step without the harness of the cart to which they are tethered, the guardians then show them the danger which threatens if they try to go alone. Actually, however, this danger is not so great, for by falling a few times they would finally learn to walk alone. But an example of this failure makes them timid and ordinarily frightens them away from all further trials. "Have courage to use your own reason!" - that is the motto of enlightenment.'
Enlightenment thought culminated historically in the political upheaval of the French Revolution. The traditional hierarchical political and social order – the French monarchy, the privileges of the French nobility, the political power and authority of the Catholic Church — were violently destroyed and replaced by a political and social order informed by the Enlightenment ideals of freedom and equality for all, founded, upon principles of human reason. It gave rise to a basic model of government founded upon the consent of the governed. This also taught the society to expect that certain basic individual human rights and religious diversity need to be respected and realized by any legitimate political system.