Read the following passage and answer the questions from 1 to 5:
Adverse Impacts of Green Revolution
There can be no doubt that the first Green Revolution lifted the country out of a situation immediately after independence when the prospects of famine and scarcity of food commodities loomed large. The rapidly expanding population could have made matters all the more worse. It was the Green Revolution that helped tackle the food security issue with increased agricultural productivity.
However, the Green Revolution did have some adverse impacts too which are being felt in the long run. Since the emphasis was mainly on cereals like rice and wheat, there was a loss of productivity as far as pulses, fruits and vegetables were concerned. The present rate of fruit and vegetable production will not be able to cope with the future demand as the population is increasing rapidly.
Besides, production of the same type of cereals such as rice and wheat year after year gradually decreased soil fertility making it difficult for pulses and other vegetables to grow. Monoculture (the cultivation of same crop variety for a prolonged period) also led to breakdown of the plant's resistance to pests and diseases which is an unwelcome offshoot of the first Green Revolution.
Another criticism often directed at the first Green Revolution is the indiscriminate use of fertilizers and pesticides that is today threatening the agri-future of the country. Excessive and inappropriate use of fertilizers and pesticides led to widespread environmental damage polluting waterways, poisoning agricultural workers and killing beneficial insects and other wildlife.
The first Green Revolution also did not take care of certain areas like rainfed, hilly, coastal, dry land and arid zones which could be developed properly for production of exportable items like fruits, honey, mushroom, milk, meat, etc. Critics of the Green Revolution have also argued that owners of large farms were the main adopters of new technologies because of their better access to irrigation water, fertilizers, seeds and credit. Small farmers were either unaffected or harmed because the Green Revolution resulted in lower product prices, higher input prices and efforts by landlords to increase rent or force tenants off the land. The Green Revolution also encouraged unnecessary mechanization, thereby pushing down rural wages and employment.
Faulty irrigation practices also led to salt build-up and eventual abandonment of some of the best farming lands. Groundwater levels have retreated in areas where more water is being pumped for irrigation than can be replenished by the rains.